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how to create immutable class in java

Immutable class is a class which once created, it's contents can not be changed. Before implementing immutable class in java, we must read the rules/guidelines provided for creating immutable class in java. Next, we will make the instance variable private. Immutable Class in Java. To create immutable class in java (User defined class), we can provide a method for modifying object data but the modification is stored in different object. This prevents careless or malicious subclasses from compromising the immutable behavior of the class by behaving as if the object’s state has changed. Immutable objects are those objects whose states cannot be changed once initialized.Sometimes it is necessary to make an immutable class as per the requirement. Thread Safety, We can’t modify the state of an immutable object and if we try to modify it then it creates a new object. How to create immutable class in java. Declare the class as final so it can’t be extended. Making the class final and the instance variables private. We can adopt the following steps while creating immutable objects. An immutable object is an object that constructed once and can’t be changed in future. 1. Create Immutable Class While creating immutable class, we need to take care that there should be no loop hole to modify our class. In Java, all the wrapper classes (like Integer, Boolean, Byte, Short) and String class are immutable. First, we will make the class final to prevent subclassing. We will now show a series of refactoring that makes the ShoppingCart class immutable. Immutable objects are those objects that can’t change after creation. Make all fields private so that direct access is not allowed. In this article, we have seen how to create an Immutable class in java. The Item class is already immutable. Boolean, Integer, Long, etc are immutable classes. You should follow rules: Make fields private and final. Class all fields must be final and private; We must not create setter methods for any fields; Class must be final so we can’t create any subclass; If class is final and we can’t create subclass so we can’t override any method To create an immutable class, here. Rules to create Immutable class in Java All the rules to create an Immutable class in java is defined to make sure that the state or property of the object do not get modified anyhow. Make class final to prohibit inheritance. For creation of immutable class below points needs to be considered . In Java, immutable classes are those classes whose values are not changed. All wrapper classes i.e Integer, Float, Long are immutable in nature and other examples of immutable classes are String, java.util.UUID, java.net.URL. Immutable objects are the best options to use as a key object in any map like HashMap. To make a class immutable, follow these five rules: from Effective Java - Third Edition - Chapter 4. ; Ensure that the class can’t be extended. In this post, we will learn what is immutable class and how to create immutable class in java. This is a common nterview question for 2-4 years java experienced developer. Don’t create setters or any other methods, that can modify fields. Step 1: The fields must be final and private. In Java, String and all the wrapper classes e.g. class is declared final so it cannot be extended; class members name and date are private so cannot be accessed outside of class; does not contain any setter methods so outer class cannot change the class members Don’t provide methods that modify the object’s state (known as mutators). Advantages of immutable objects In Why String is Immutable and Final in Java, I have discussed how just by being immutable in nature, String gains lots of advantages including. 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