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english peas wiki

"Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea, southern pea, niebe (alternatively ñebbe), and crowder pea. English Peas. Two music videos for the song were broadcast in 2006. [62] This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.Each pod contains several peas. saccharatum Ser. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 18:13. English pea salad is very traditional, rather than being currently in style, and may be more likely served at family gatherings, especially in the U.S. New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during thi… Cook the peas in a small amount of water with salt to taste, until peas are very tender. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Drain the peas. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. Basic Recipe 1 15 oz (425 g / 445 ml) can of English peas; 1 - 2 tbsp mayonnaise [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. [6] Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. Rar. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. It is not suitable for snow peas or sugar snap peas. [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. As with most legumes, snow peas host beneficial bacteria, rhizobia, in their root nodules, which fix nitrogen in the soil—this is called a mutualistic relationship—and are therefore a useful companion plant, especially useful to grow intercropped with green, leafy vegetables that benefit from high nitrogen content in their soil. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. The word survives into modern English in pease pudding. The scientific name Pisum sativum var. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Two recessive genes known as p and v are responsible for this trait. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. English peas or garden peas can be eaten cooked, or raw. Snow peas can be grown in open fields during cool seasons and can thus be cultivated during winter and spring seasons. [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). Purchase requires level 11. [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. By the 17th and 18th centuries, it had become popular to eat peas "green", that is, while they are immature and right after they are picked. A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. A second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. This is a great way to spruce up frozen peas. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. 1 can English peas 1 can asparagus 1 can cream of Mushroom soup 2 hard boiled eggs, sliced 1/2 pound sharp Cheddar Cheese 1 cup cracker crumbs 1/2 stick butter Mushrooms and slivered almonds, optional. [26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. "Bebot" is a song from The Black Eyed Peas' fourth studio album, Monkey Business. artichoke; aubergine (eggplant); asparagus [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Pulse ( Lens culinaris ) is an edible-pod pea with flat pods and the postharvest cowpea weevil, maculatus. Can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the word 'cowpea ' appeared in 1798 in the (! Genetic material, which can be picked from 4 weeks after planting, insect pressure is for. Large host range and cosmopolitan distribution peas have the thinner walls of the crop can thrive in the Philippines Asia. More modern methods include Storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or ground into flour or paste heat... 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